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Yamaha YZ 450 F – dziecko rewolucji

Yamaha jako ostatnia z wielkich wprowadziła do crossówek wtrysk paliwa. Na własnej skórze przekonałem się, co to dało. YZ 450 F to dziecko rewolucji.


Rewolucja ponoć zabija swoje dzieci. Na szczęście w tym przypadku to nie będzie takie łatwe. Japończycy z Yamahy wylali sporo potu, zanim pokazali światu YZ 450 F. Rozwiązania zastosowane w silniku i ramie z pewnością spędzają sen z oczu konkurencji. Mnie interesuje tylko jedno – jak ten sprzęt jeździ? Za oceanem, na torze w Budds Creek, czeka dziesięć Yamaszek. Dla każdego przewidziano cztery sesje po 20 minut każda. Powinno wystarczyć.

Projektanci silnika zaszaleli: cylinder odbili w lustrze, tzn. kolanko wydechu powędrowało do tyłu. Dzięki temu zaoszczędzono nieco masy, ale również uzyskano lepsze jej rozłożenie. Oprócz tego udało się wygospodarować sporo miejsca – z przodu, przed zbiornikiem paliwa, upakowano system zasilania, czyli pochylony pod kątem 45O wtrysk paliwa Keihin o średnicy gardzieli 44 mm oraz filtr powietrza. Świeże i zimne (tzn. nieogrzane przez silnik) powietrze jest bardzo istotne, bo zawiera więcej tlenu. Do tego takie umiejscowienie nie powoduje zasysania kurzu unoszącego się spod przedniego koła.



Na opak
Podobnie sprawa się ma ze wspomnianym pochyleniem kanału ssącego – dzięki lepszemu napełnieniu cylindra i lepszemu oddawaniu mocy na średnich i niskich obrotach można urwać kilka setnych sekundy na okrążeniu toru. Z tego samego powodu namieszano w głowicy i darowano sobie pięć zaworów. Teraz pracują tam dwa zawory ssące o średnicy 36 mm oraz dwa wydechowe o średnicy 30 mm. Mało tego – żeby uzyskać lepsze wyważenie, cylinder pochylono nieco do tyłu, a nie do przodu. W ten sposób do minimum zmniejszono tarcie tłoka, co sprzyja bardziej agresywnej reakcji na gaz.

O 2,6 mm (do 60,8 mm) zmniejszono skok tłoka, a średnicę cylindra zwiększono z 95 do 97 mm, zredukowano też masy wirujące. Swoje do poręczności i prowadzenia wnosi kołyskowa rama w kształcie podwójnego S (gdy się patrzy na nią od góry, bez wątpienia przypomina dwie litery S). Zaprojektowanie nowej ramy było niezbędne, ponieważ obudowa fi ltra powietrza mogła zostać przesunięta tylko do przodu, a przecież układ wydechowy również potrzebuje sporo miejsca.

Zawieszenia w dalszym ciągu dostarcza Kayaba. W tylnym amorze – ze względu na miejsce – zwykły, pionowy, 45-milimetrowy zbiorniczek wyrównawczy zastąpiono 50-milimetrowym, poziomo zabudowanym. Mniej się nagrzewa, dzięki czemu można precyzyjniej wyregulować tłumienie. Skok widelca wzrósł (o 10 mm) do 310 mm. Hamulce Nissin, z przodu z tarczą o średnicy 250 mm i dwutłoczkowym zaciskiem, z tyłu z tarczą o średnicy 245 mm i jednotłoczkowym zaciskiem, radzą sobie bez zarzutu. Yamaha postarała się o jeszcze jedną miłą niespodziankę: można własnoręcznie ustawić wtrysk zwykłym Power Toolem. To prostsze i tańsze niż praca z laptopem.

 

     
Przed zbiornikiem paliwa umieszczono filtr powietrza.  Chłopak na opak – kolanko wydechowe umieszczono z tyłu cylindra. Z przodu jego miejsce zajął układ wtrysku paliwa pochylony pod kątem 45°.  Poszczególne częścikołyskowej ramy zostały wykonane z profili aluminiowych.Równowaga między wytrzymałością a sztywnościągwarantuje dobrą poręcznośći stabilność motocykla. 


Szybkie kółka
Już na pierwszym okrążeniu złapałem niezłe zdziwko – silnik od samego dołu jest piekielnie mocny. Ciasne winkle mogę przejechać na dwójce i mimo to wychodzę z nich na gumie. Przełożenie skrzyni biegów nie jest, jak na mój gust, zbyt trafi one. Jedynka jest za krótka, a dwójka za długa. Po wyjściu z zakrętu ślizgiem na jedynce silnik kręcił na maksa.

Zakręty najlepiej pozwalają docenić zabiegi w kierunku lepszego rozmieszczenia masy. Dobrze jest się wtedy przesunąć do przodu, ale podczas przyspieszania na prostych nie ma potrzeby dociążania tyłu. Również w koleinach motocykl był poręczny i stabilny. Mniejszy kąt pochylenia główki ramy rekompensuje dłuższy skok widelca. Jednak na długich, wyboistych prostych kierownica ma skłonności do trzepania.

Tylny amortyzator, jak na moje 90 kg, był zestrojony za miękko. To samo dotyczy widelca (zawiechy zestrojono pod gości ważących 80 kg). Mile zaskoczyło to, że na olbrzymich hopkach ani razu nie dobił. Dzięki temu Yamaha uzyskała świetne czasy okrążenia.


12 lat doświadczeń
Yamaha dobrze wykorzystała doświadczenia zbierane przez 12 lat. Ciekawe, czy tor pożre dziecko rewolucji, jakim jest YZ 450 F…



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    Yamaha jako ostatnia z wielkich wprowadziła do crossówek wtrysk paliwa. Na własnej skórze przekonałem się, co to dało. YZ 450 F to dziecko rewolucji.
    Zobacz artykuł
    ~Motocykl Online, 2013-07-02 06:51:10
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